Marriage was examined in a total population of mentally retarded young mildly retarded, significantly fewer young people had married by age 22 than in a. Read "I'm Not a Retard!" by Rajashree Anand available Rohan Gunatillake. Free · Take One Arranged Marriage ebook by Shoma Narayanan. I'm Not a Retard! ebook by Rajashree Anand. Preview Now; Preview Rohan Gunatillake. Free · Take One Arranged Marriage ebook by Shoma Narayanan.
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How I Saved Someone's Life and Marriage and Family Problems Thru In fairness he did tell me that the author was a legally retarded little person, but he. trekouthemsogold.cf: His Drunken Wife (Marriages Made in India Book 3) eBook: Sundari Venkatraman: Kindle Wish the author would not use the word, " retarded child". The card begin to uncover when Abhimanyu and Shikha gets married. Psychotherapy with the Mentally Ill/ Mentally Retarded Person . Subsequently, when his brother began college, got married, and experienced the birth of his.
Monsoon Wedding Fever. Shoma Narayanan. The House of Hidden Mothers. Meera Syal. Mrs D is Going Within. Lotta Dann. Rohan Gunatillake. You are the Best Wife. Ajay Pandey. Take One Arranged Marriage Love on the Verge. Ankur Sharma. A Very Mindful Christmas. Messed Up! But all for Love. Arvind Parashar. Novoneel Chakravorty.
Rajorshi Chakraborti. It's Not About You. Ratna Vira. When Karma Goes Upside Down.
Dishant Huria. Our Imperfectly Perfect Love. Rochak Bhatnagar. A Silent Promise. Namrata Gupta. A Year with the Angels.
Jenny Smedley. Richa S Mukherjee. Pratap Reddy. Six Degrees Game of Blogs. Various Authors. No Matter What I Do Devanshi Sharma. Love Deception Life. Animesh Pandey. A Boy Named Khwahish. Dee Aditya. Anita Loughrey. Love's Labor. Andy Paula. Yours Lovingly. Soumya Tripathi. B's depressive symptoms resurfaced. Chronolog-ically, he was slightly older than his brother, and Mr.
B felt he was further and further behind, and consequently the depressive symptoms would resurface. During these difficult transition periods, effective supportive psychotherapy interventions with Mr. B were as follows: As was previously mentioned, at approximately the same time Mr. B had an extremely close bond with his grandmother and did not feel that he played an active role in the funeral services. In fact, he was kept from them by his family because of his mental retardation.
B's own mother reacted to the loss by isolating herself from other family members and characterized her mother's death to Mr. In another era, Mr. B would not have lived to experience this loss. The average life expectancy for the MR person in the s was nine years of age.
By the s, life expectancy for that population had increased to between 50 and 60 years. Currently, the life expectancy approaches that of the general population, except when there are multiple disabilities, cerebral palsy, Down's syndrome, or severe levels of cognitive impairment.
They suffer the losses of parents, grandparents, primary caretakers, siblings, and pets, and often lose their community housing in the process, especially if the loss was that of the last remaining parent. B's case, MR persons historically have been excluded from attending funeral services of family members.
However, they did observe increased scores of aberrant behavior in the bereaved group after losses, which we now know clearly indicated the significant and disturbing impact of the loss of an important attachment figure. In the past, only 16 percent of bereaved clients had the opportunity to visit their loved ones' graves or locations where ashes had been scattered.
It may be helpful to understand how a MR person experiences loss if one takes into account the stage of development of that person. According to Piaget, 8 the sensorimotor stage would be the level of cognitive ability of a profoundly MR person developmental age 0 to 2 years. The loss experience for such an individual would be one of expectation that the lost object will return e. The patient may ask questions such as: How will the loss affect me? Who will understand me now?
Who will take care of me? Who will be my friend? Who will give me things?
This patient can understand clear and specific explanations of loss and death but will tend to take things literally. Dual diagnosis individuals are people, and as such they desire the same things from life as individuals in the general population do: B's quality-of-life indicators included housing, finances, and his occupational setting.
He was especially fearful when requesting time off work, despite the fact that he had accumulated many weeks of available leave; this was actually the result of a request by Mr. B for time off during the Thanksgiving holiday being denied by his supervisor. B was encouraged to ask his supervisor for a few new duties and a small raise, and he was given a note endorsing these changes.
His job description and wages were upgraded almost immediately. He was encouraged to ask his supervisor why leave had been refused last Thanksgiving. When the reasoning was re-interpreted to him correctly he was told that his services had been very much needed during the holiday period , he experienced a boost to his morale, and he readily asked for and received a brief vacation before assuming his new duties.
B lived independently in a small apartment, which was his preference, and was able to afford his monthly bills rent for subsidized apartment, utilities, groceries, etc. This frustrated him at times and he felt it to be an obstacle to meeting new friends. His small wage increase gave him more spending flexibility and facilitated his ability to engage in more social activities. One reason Mr. At the same time, like many mildly retarded persons, he felt inferior to co-workers in his occupational setting.
Although there were opportunities for social networking through both mental health and mental retardation systems, Mr. Without directly challenging Mr. B's assumptions about his condition or his family, the psychiatrist facilitated access to a supported educational program, job coaching, and case management.
B was in fact not as disabled as some of the other patients; therefore, Mr. B had some recurring themes in his relationship difficulties. He tended to be submissive and passive, which resulted in frustration and an increase in his symptoms of depression and anxiety.
He also had self-esteem problems and poor self confidence, which caused him to make poor decisions in relationships and attempt to continually please others. This in turn resulted in poor boundaries with both men and women, and these difficulties were compounded by his limited insight and judgment.
B expressed a goal of being able to voice his opinions with confidence and be accepted as a person by both platonic friends and potential significant others. Using supportive psychotherapy, the therapist became active and directive in helping Mr. B improve social functioning and coping skills. In general, the goals of supportive psychotherapy include the following: In therapy, Mr.
B has learned how to maintain appropriate boundaries in a relationship but still maintain the relationship. For example, when the therapist ran late for an appointment, Mr. B learned how to assert his legitimate needs and rights in an appropriate manner and learned that the relationship was not threatened by him doing so. B began to practice limit-setting and appropriate boundaries with his family and learned that this was safe to do within these stable and supportive relationships.
B the option of not answering questions when it did not feel comfortable and by giving him specific responses to use when these situations arose in other circumstances and relationships. For example, Mr. B described a chronic problem of giving others too much information, even when he felt the questions were personal or intrusive.
The therapy setting was also utilized for addressing sexuality and issues of romantic relationships. Like Mr. B, often individuals with MR aren't exposed to sexual education, and it is common for family members and others to ignore this aspect of the MR individual's adult life.
Multifaceted factors made parents in groups A and B more vulnerable to stress compared with parents in the control group. A mentally retarded child in a family is usually a serious stress factor for the parents.
It often requires a reorientation and reevaluation of family goals, responsibilities and relationships. In India, the majority of persons with mental retardation have traditionally been cared for by their families. In today's modern society this home-based care has resulted in many adverse consequences.
Factors such as changes in the social system e.
The emotional and social stress that these parents undergo have been described by various investigators in the East and West. Therefore, we undertook this study i to find any difference in the perceived stress between both the parents of mentally retarded children, ii to establish whether these stresses occur more frequently in parents of mentally retarded children than in those of normal children, and iii to find any correlation between the severity of perceived stressors and the anxiety state of these parents.
One hundred eighty subjects were selected and categorized into three groups: A, B and C. Only children who had both parents were included in this study. All the children were matched for age and sex, but not IQ. Group A consisted of 60 parents 30 mothers and 30 fathers of profound to moderately mentally retarded children mean IQ: Group B consisted of 60 parents 30 mothers and 30 fathers of mild to borderline mentally retarded children mean IQ: Group C consisted of 60 parents 30 mothers and 30 fathers of physically healthy children with normal intelligence mean IQ: All the mentally retarded children were diagnosed by a consultant psychiatrist using the ICD criteria 8 and their IQs were assessed by a psychologist using the following intelligence tests: A semi-structured proforma was prepared for this study, which included i specific variables of the child such as age, sex and severity of mental retardation ii sociodemographic variables such as parental age, religion, education, occupation, family income and type of family.
Each parent was interviewed and evaluated separately. The tool consists of section 1 for measuring perceived stress daily care, emotional, social and financial and section 2 for measuring mediators or coping strategies awareness, attitudes, expectations, rearing practices and social support.
Section 1 was used in this study. It has 11 subscales which include extra inputs of care, decreased leisure time, neglect of others, disturbed behaviour, personal distress, marital problems, other interpersonal problems, effect on sibs and other family worries, altered social life, social embarrassment and financial implications.
The parents were rated on a 5-point scale no or minimal stress to a very high level of stress. The absence of stress was rated as zero and a score of four was given for a very high level of stress.
This scale has 14 subscales which include anxious mood, tension, fears, insomnia, intellectual cognitive , depressed mood, somatic muscular , somatic sensory , cardiovascular symptoms, respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, genitourinary symptoms, autonomic symptoms and behaviour at interview. All the parents were rated on a 5-point scale. The absence of symptoms was rated as zero and a score of four was given for the severe category. Some interesting trends were observed in the sociodemographic characteristics of the study groups.
The mean age of fathers in group B was The mean age of mothers in group C The educational level of both the parents in groups A and B was lower as compared to that of group C. In all the groups, the majority of mothers were housewives. Ten per cent of fathers in group A, 3. The family income of group C participants was higher as compared to those in groups A and B Table 2 compares the perceived stressors among parents in groups A, B and C.
When groups A and B were compared, a significant difference was noted in all the perceived stressors except marital problems, other interpersonal problems, effects on sibs and other family members, and financial implications. A significant difference was noted in all the perceived stressors when groups A and C were compared. When groups B and C were compared, a significant difference was noted in all the perceived stressors except other interpersonal problems.
A significant difference was noted in the perceived stress and anxiety level among parents in groups A, B and C. Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale; F: Fischer's exact; df: Table 5 indicates a positive correlation between perceived stress and the level of anxiety i. Stress among parents is not an inevitable consequence of having mentally retarded children. A combination of multiple stressors appears to predict the likelihood of the parents experiencing stress and anxiety.
Stressors can be defined as those life events that will bring about a change in the family system. A number of investigators such as Beckman, 16 Burden, 17 Bradshaw and Lawton 18 found that mothers of mentally retarded children had a high level of stress.