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C They offer the employee complimentary product D Employee were encouraged to give services back to the community E the products are designed for workers to barter for other goods and services F offered a package of benefits for disable employees Questions Choose the three correct letter, A- F.
A pioneering the natural-ingredient cosmetics market B appealed to primary market mainly of the rich women C focused on their lavish ads campaign D The company avoided producing the traditional cosmetics products E its moral concept that refuses to use animals- tested ingredients F its monetary donations to the communities and in developing countries Questions Choose the three correct letter, A- F.
A its philosophy that there is real beauty in everyone is faulty B fail to fulfill promises while acted like misleading the public C faced growing competition D its creating demand for something that the customers do not actually need E its newer, fresher Brands are not successful in the Market F fail to offer cosmetics at lower prices than competitors SECTION 2 Photovoltaics on the rooftop A natural choice for powering the family home A In the past, urban home owners have not always had much choice in the way electricity is supplied to their homes.
Now, however, there is a choice, and a rapidly increasing number of households worldwide are choosing the solar energy option. B The photovoltaics-powered home remains connected to the power lines, but no storage is required on-site, only a box of electronics the inverter to the interface between the photovoltaics and the grid network.
Figure 1 illustrates the system. During the day, when the home may not be using much electricity, excess power from the solar array is fed back to the grid, to factories and offices that need daytime power. At night, power flows the opposite way. The grid network effectively provides storage. If the demand for electricity is well matched to when the sun shines, solar energy is especially valuable.
This occurs in places like California in the US and Japan, where air-conditioning loads for offices and factories are large but heating loads for homes are small. C The first systematic exploration of the use of photovoltaics on homes began in the US during the s.
A well-conceived program started with the sitting of a number of residential experiment stations, at selected locations around the country, representing different climatic zones.
A change in US government priorities in the early s halted this program. A large residential test station was installed on Rokko Island beginning in Each equipped with its own kilowatt photovoltaic system about 20 — 50 square meters for each system.
Some of these simulated homes have their own electrical appliances inside, such as TV sets, refrigerators and air conditioning units, which switch on and off under computer control providing a lavish lifestyle for the non-existent occupants.
For the other systems, electronics simulate these household loads. This test station has allowed the technical issues involved in using photovoltaics within the electricity network to be explored in a systematic way, under well-controlled test conditions. With no insurmountable problems identified, the Japanese have used the experience gained from this station to begin their own massive residential photovoltaics campaign.
The program proved immensely popular, forcing its extension to over 2, homes scattered across Germany. The success of this program stimulated other European countries to launch similar program.
The initially quoted aims of the Japanese New Energy Development Organization were to have 70, homes equipped with the photovoltaics by the year , on the way to 1 million by The program made a modest start in , when systems were installed with a government subsidy of 50 percent. Under this program, entire new suburban developments are using photovoltaics. G This is good news, not only for the photovoltaic industry, but for everyone concerned with the environment. The use of fossil fuels to generate electricity is not only costly in financial terms, but also in terms of environmental damage.
Gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels in the production of electricity are a major contributor to the greenhouse effect. To deal with this problem, many governments are now proposing stringent targets on the amount of greenhouse gas emissions permitted. These targets mean that all sources of greenhouse gas emissions including residential electricity use, will receive closer attention in the future.
H It is likely that in the future, governments will develop building codes that attempt to constrain the energy demands of new housing. For example, the use of photovoltaics or the equivalent maybe stipulated to lessen demands on the grid network and hence reduce fossil fuel emissions.
Approvals for building renovations may also be conditional upon taking such energy-saving measures. If this were to happen, everyone would benefit. In addition, everyone living on the planet stands to gain from the more benign environmental impact. Questions Reading passage 2 has nine paragraphs listed A-H Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the appropriate letters A-Hin boxes on your answer sheet. NB you may use any letter more than once Photovoltaics are used to store electricity. The solar-powered houses on Rokko Island are uninhabited. In , the Japanese government was providing half the money required for installing photovoltaics on homes. Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Australia all have strict goals with regard to greenhouse gas emissions.
Residential electricity use is the major source of greenhouse gas emission. Energy-saving measures must now be included in the design of all new homes and improvements to buildings. In short, their message was: no risk, no gain. C They have absolutely missed the point. The precautionary principle is a subtle idea. It has various forms, but all of them generally include some notion of cost-effectiveness.
Thus the point is not simply to ban things that are not known to be absolutely safe. E If the precautionary principle had been in place, the scientists tell us, we would not have antibiotics.
But of course we would — if the version of the principle that sensible people now understand had been applied.
When penicillin was discovered in the s, infective bacteria were laying waste to the world. Children died from diphtheria and whooping cough, every open drain brought the threat of typhoid, and any wound could lead to septicemia and even gangrene.
F Penicillin was turned into a practical drug during the Second World War, when the many pestilences that result from war threatened to kill more people than the bombs. Of course antibiotics were a priority. Of course the risks, such as they could be perceived, were worth taking. G And so with the other items on the scientists, list: electric light bulbs, blood transfusions, CAT scans, knives, the measles vaccine —the precautionary principle would have prevented all of them, they tell us.
MAN: OK, we have just about everything here; tableware, marquees … you name it, we rent it! What size of event are we talking about here? It was all getting a bit out of hand. MAN: Ok, and what kind of catering and entertainment are you having?
We can help with entertainment hire, too, you know, if you need microphones or a sound system.
MAN: I see, and do you need any tables or chairs. What type do you have? We have a couple of different kinds. We do have folding wooden ones, like these, but the most popular ones are just those stackable plastic garden chairs, we rent a lot of those… WOMAN: Yes, the plastic ones look great.
Maybe 40 of those. Was there anything else? Oh, do you want small or medium glasses? People generally want both sizes.
Four dozen of each. Umm … and what else? Oh, I know, what about six ice buckets, for keeping the drinks cold? Umm … I suppose this is going to get very expensive. Before you hear the rest of the conversation, you have some time to look at questions 6 to Now listen and answer questions 6 to Firstly… what day do you want to collect the equipment?
Does that make a difference to the price?